Piagam Muara Mendras
text notes
list of words



Piagam Muara Mendras


Annabel Teh Gallop, “Piagam Muara Mendras: More Malay Documents from Highland Jambi”, paper given at Crossing Borders in Southeast Asian Archaeology, 13th International Conferences of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Berlin, 2010.


as listed below.


A  1719-1743.      B  text:  1641-1675;  manuscript:  ~1880.      C  1840.      D  1882.


texts & manuscripts:  Muara Mendras, Jambi, South Sumatra.


1102 words.


to the items (A-D) and the parts and paragraphs of Gallop’s edition, thus:  PiagM A:a1:s indicates a seal.


These texts were kindly provided by Annabel Gallop

Underlying manuscripts
PiagM A
A:a — Charter (piagam), early 18th century, issued by Sultan Astra Ingalaga (r.1719-1725, 1727-1743 in Jambi) to Dipati Ratna Yuda, written by Ki Astra Negara.
A:b — Fragment in the same hand, possibly forming part of A:a.
A:c — Later endorsement (tapak ...) with the seal A:cc of a Palembang noble.
PiagM B
Credentials invoking the authority of Sultan Tajul Alam Safiatuddin Syah, Queen of Aceh (r.1641-1675), over the land of Jami, granted to Dipati Ranah Udah with reference to the credentials (celak piagam) of Dipati Udah Mengala, with a boundary list of the territory under his jurisdiction; incomplete.
PiagM C
Charter (celak piagam) of Dipati Mucak Alam Tiang Igama and Dipati Rana Uda of Sungai Tenang, specifying the boundaries of land under their jurisdiction, and confirming the shared authority of Dipati Mucak Alam Tiang Igama and Dipati Uda Mengala; dated AH 1256 (AD 1840/1); with the seal of Sultan Abdul Rahman Nasiruddin, stamped on a piece of paper which has been pasted on.
PiagM D
Credentials (celak piagam) of Dipati Muncak Tiang Igama of Sungai Tenang, specifying the boundaries of the land under his jurisdiction; date illegible, but bearing the seal of Sultan Kakanda Ahmad Nasiruddin dated 1881/1882
Editorial notes and bibliography
The texts are generally in poor condition and – especially with A – fragmentary.  Missing text is marked by ... , and illegible words or parts of words by xxx, xx.
Gallop presents a diplomatic edition of these four documents, retaining dialectal and spelling peculiarities.  In her preparation of the edition, she was aided by earlier transcriptions of C and D made by Heinzpeter Znoj consulting local informants, and of D by Muh. Djaapar.
Gallop’s paper courageously provides English translations of all four texts.
Drakard, Jane. 1999. A kingdom of words: language and power in Sumatra. Shah Alam: Oxford University Press. (South-East Asian Historical Monographs).
Gallop, Annabel Teh. 2002.  “Malay seal inscriptions: a study in Islamic epigraphy from Southeast Asia.” [Ph.D. thesis]. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Gallop, Annabel Teh. 2009.  “Piagam Serampas: Malay documents from highland Jambi.” From distant tales: archaeology and ethnohistory in the highlands of Sumatra, ed. Dominik Bonatz, John Miksic, J. David Neidel, Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz; pp.272-322. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.
Neidel, John David. 2006.  ‘The Garden of Forking Paths: history, its erasure and remembrance in Sumatra’s Kerinci Seblat National Park.’ [Ph.D. thesis]. Yale University.
Znoj, Heinzpeter. 2001. “Heterarchy and domination in highland Jambi. The contest for community in a matrilinear society.” Habilitationsschrift, University of Bern.
Added:  December 2010
A digital text was provided by Annabel Gallop, and adapted to the MCP format.  .