Surat Farqhuar
text notes
list of words



Surat Farqhuar


Badriyah Haji Salleh (ed.), Warkah al-Ikhlas, 1818-1821, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1999.


Add. 12398, Oriental and India Office Collections, British Library, London.


text:  1819-1821;    manuscript:  1821.


text:  as listed below, principally Singapore;
manuscript:  Singapore, Farquhar’s Secretariat → John Crawfurd 1842.


25702 words


to numbered letters (1-120) and lines of the printed edition.

Editorial notes and bibliography
Add. 12398 was a register kept in Farquhar's Singapore secretariat, in which were recorded official letters (outgoing and incoming) and proclamations.   Badriyah Haji Salleh comments that the contents are clearly copies, because they include errors and corrections, and occasionally duplicates.  
Badriyah's stated editorial policy is to reproduce the text as found (p.40).   However, the transliteration appears to have undergone some secondary editing.  For example, Badriyah notes (p.xix, 4) that the letters are nearly all introduced with "Ini kopia surat kirim ..." (i.e. This is a copy of the letter ...).  In the transliterated text, this has been changed to "Ini copy surat kiriman ...".  The original has been restored.   Similarly for Wolanda, represented in the transliteration as [H]olanda.   It is also likely that some of the dates Badriyah reads as 1234 should be 1235, but no changes have been made.
List of letters
Letters are numbered, broadly chronologically, in the order in which they are found in Add. 12398.
#    from    to
Farq 1Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Riau
2Yang Dipertuan Muda RiauMejar William Farquhar
3Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Riau
4Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Riau
5Yang Dipertuan Muda RiauMejar William Farquhar
6Sultan Husin dan Temenggung SingapuraGabenor Jeneral Syarikat Hindia Timur di Benggala dan Gabenor di Pulau Pinang
7Temenggung SingapuraYang Dipertuan Muda Riau
8Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Riau
9Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Siak
10Mejar William FarquharTengku Pangeran Siak
11Dato´ Bendahara PahangMejar William Farquhar
12Raja Deris, RiauMejar William Farquhar
13Raja DerisMejar William Farquhar
14Mejar William FarquharRaja Deris, Riau
15Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Tua Siak
16Mejar William FarquharEncik Puan Bukit Batu
17Mejar William FarquharTengku Long Putih dan Tengku Pangeran, Siak
18Mejar William FarquharPangeran Dipati Palembang Sultan Muda
19Mejar William FarquharRaja Deris, Riau
20Mejar William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
21Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Riau
22Mejar William Farquhar,Yang Dipertuan Muda Terengganu
23Mejar William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
24Mejar William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
25Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Lingga
26Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Terengganu
27Mejar William FarquharRaja Kelantan
28Sir Stamford RafflesDato´ Bendahara Pahang
29 / Wrkh 66Mejar William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
30 / Wrkh 65Mejar William FarquharTengku Puteri Riau
31Mejar William FarquharRaj a Deris, Riau
32 / Wrkh 67Mejar William FarquharTuan Syed Hamid Kemboja
33Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Terengganu
34Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Besar Terengganu
35Mejar William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
36Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Tua Siak Indera Pura
37Mejar William FarquharDato Bandar Lingga
38Mejar William FarquharSultan Matan
39 / WBrn 1Mejar William FarquharRaja Brunei
40Mejar William FarquharKeraeng Tua
43Mejar William FarquharSilawatang Daeng Menampi
44Mejar William FarquharDato´ Seri Pikrama Raja Siak Seri Indera Pura
45Anak Saudara Keraeng Tua, RiauMejar William Farquhar
46 / Wrkh 69Mejar William FarquharPenghulu Naning
47Sultan Husin Muhammad SyahMejar William Farquhar
48Mejar William FarquharTengku Pangeran Siak
50Mejar William FarquharSyahbandar Lingga
51Mejar William FarquharKeraeng Tua.
52Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Terengganu
53Kolonel William FarquharTengku Besar Kampar
57Mejar William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Terengganu
58 / WBrn 2Kolonel William FarquharPangeran Muda Muhammad Alam
59Kolonel William FarquharTengku Syed Kuning, Lingga
60Kolonel William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
62Kolonel William FarquharKapitan Kling, Melaka
66Kolonel William FarquharRaja Bugis
67 / WBrn 3Kolonel William FarquharRaja Brunei
70Yang Dipertuan Besar SiakKolonel William Farquhar
71Kolonel William FarquharRaja Bugis
72Kolonel William FarquharYang Dipertuan Singapura.
73Kolonel William FarquharYang Dipertuan Singapura
74Kolonel William FarquliarTengku Long Jambi
75Kolonel William FarquharRaja Siam
76Kolonel William FarquharYang Dipertuan Terengganu
77Kolonel William FarquharYang Dipertuan Terengganu
78Kolonel William FarquharYang Dipertuan Muda Terengganu
79Kolonel William FarquharTengku Syed Kuning
80Dato´ Bendahara PahangKolonel William Farquhar
81Tengku Pangeran Pulau LawanKolonel William Farquhar
82Kolonel William FarquharYang Dipertuan Besar Siak.
83Kolonel William FarquharPangeran Syed Zain Pulau Lawan
84 / WBrn 6Kolonel William FarquharPangeran Muda Muhammad Alam
85Kolonel William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
86Yang Dipertuan Besar SiakKolonel William Farquhar
87Kolonel William FarquharYang Dipertuan Besar Siak
88Tengku Pangeran SiakKolonel William Farquhar
89Kolonel William FarquharTengku Pangeran Siak
90Dato´ Seri Pikrama Raja SiakKolonel William Farquhar
91Kolonel William FarquharDato´ Seri Pikrama Raja Siak
92 / WBrn 7Kolonel William FarquharPangeran Muda Muhammad Brunei
93Kolonel William FarquharSultan Pontianak
94Dato' Bendahara PahangKolonel William Farquhar
95Kolonel William FarquharDato' Bendahara Pahang
96Kolonel William FarquharSultan Pontianak
97 / WBrn 5Pangeran Digadung Sultan Muhammad Kanzun AlamKolonel William Farquhar
98Pangeran Ratu Anum Kota RinginKolonel William Farquhar
99 / WBrn 12Kolonel William FarquharPangeran Digadung
100Kolonel William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
101Kolonel William FarquharDato´ Bendahara Pahang
102Dato´ Seri Maharaja SiakKolonel William Farquhar
103 / WBrn 11Sultan Kanzun Alam BruneiKolonel William Farquhar
104 / WBrn 9Sultan Kanzun Alam BruneiKolonel William Farquhar
105Pangeran Adipati Muda PalembangKolonel William Farquhar
106Kolonel William FarquharPangeran Adipati Muda Palembang
107Kolonel William FarquharDato´ Seri Maharaja Siak
108 / WBrn 10Sultan Muhammad Kanzun AlamKolonel William Farquhar
109 / WBrn 8Sultan Muhammad Kanzun AlamKolonel William Farquhar
110Kolonel William FarquharTengku Pangeran Siak
111Tengku Pangeran SiakKolonel William Farquhar
112Sultan MatanKolonel William Farquhar
113 / WBrn 13Kolonel William FarquharSultan Muhammad Alam Brunei
114 / WBrn 14Kolonel William FarquharSultan Muhammad Kanzun Alam
115Dato´ Muda Pulau AurKolonel William Farquhar
116Sultan MatanKolonel William Farquhar
117Kolonel William FarquharDato´ Muda Pulau Aur
118Sultan BimaKolonel William Farquhar
119Kolonel William FarquharRaja Bima
120(Tiada Nama Pengirim)Tuan Syahbandar Burton
Other transcriptions
Four of these letters are illustrated and transcribed in Gallop, The Legacy of the Malay Letter / Warisan Warkah Melayu, namely:
•  29 = Gallop LML, no.66 (illustration 198, 196, p.162);
•  30 = Gallop LML, no.65 (illustration 196, p.162);
•  32 = Gallop LML, no.67 (illustration 200, p.163);
•  46 = Gallop LML, no.69 (illustration 202, p.164).
      See further Warisan Warkah Melayu (Wrkh).
A further thirteen are transcribed and translated in Gallop, “Malay Sources for Borneo”, namely:
•  39 = Gallop MSB, no.1 [Add.12398 no.39]
•  58 = Gallop MSB, no.2 [Add.12398 no.56]
•  67 = Gallop MSB, no.3 [Add.12398 no.67]
•  84 = Gallop MSB, no.6 [Add.12398 no.81 or 82]
•  92 = Gallop MSB, no.7 [Add.12398 no.89]
•  97 = Gallop MSB, no.5 [Add.12398 no.94]
•  99 = Gallop MSB, no.12 [Add.12398 no.96]
•  103 = Gallop MSB, no.11 [Add.12398 no.100]
•  104 = Gallop MSB, no.9
•  108 = Gallop MSB, no.10
•  109 = Gallop MSB, no.8
•  113 = Gallop MSB, no.13 [Add.12398 no.111]
•  114 = Gallop MSB, no.14 [Add.12398 no.114]
      See further Warkah Brunei (WBrn).
Gallop Annabel Teh, The Legacy of the Malay Letter / Warisan Warkah Melayu, London: British Library for the National Archives of Malaysia, 1994.
Added:  September 2008.
The text was scanned in Canberra using Recognita™ OCR, and edited to a minor degree.